SUMMARY: Section 104(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 ("CPSIA") requires the United States Consumer Product Safety Commission ("CPSC," "Commission," or "we") to promulgate consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. These standards are to be "substantially the same as" applicable voluntary standards or more stringent than the voluntary standard if the Commission concludes that more stringent requirements would further reduce the risk of injury associated with the product. The Commission is issuing safety standards for full-size and non-full-size baby cribs in response to the direction under section 104(b) of the CPSIA. /1/ Section 104(c) of the CPSIA specifies that the crib standards will cover used as well as new cribs. The crib standards will apply to anyone who manufactures, distributes, or contracts to sell a crib; to child care facilities, family child care homes, and others holding themselves out to be knowledgeable about cribs; to anyone who leases, sublets, or otherwise places a crib in the stream of commerce; and to owners and operators of places of public accommodation affecting commerce.
/1/ The Commission voted 5-0 to approve publication of this final rule. Chairman Inez M. Tenenbaum, Commissioner Thomas H. Moore, Commissioner Robert S. Adler, and Commissioner Anne M. Northup filed statements concerning this action which may be viewed on the Commission's Web site at http://www.cpsc.gov/pr/statements.html or obtained from the Commission's Office of the Secretary. END FOOTNOTE
EFFECTIVE DATE: Effective Date: The rule will become effective on June 28, 2011. The incorporation by reference of the publications listed in this rule is approved by the Director of the Federal Register as of June 28, 2011.
Compliance Dates: Compliance with this rule with respect to the offer or provision for use of cribs by child care facilities, family child care homes, and places of public accommodation affecting commerce is required starting on December 28, 2012. For all other entities subject to the rule, compliance with this rule is required starting on June 28, 2011.
FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Christopher Melchert, Office of Compliance and Field Operations, Consumer Product Safety Commission, 4330 East West Highway, Bethesda, MD 20814; telephone (301) 504-7588; firstname.lastname@example.org
A. Background and Statutory Authority
1. Section 104(b) of the Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act
The Consumer Product Safety Improvement Act of 2008 ("CPSIA", Pub. L. 110-314) was enacted on August 14, 2008. Section 104(b) of the CPSIA requires the Commission to promulgate consumer product safety standards for durable infant or toddler products. The law requires that these standards are to be "substantially the same as" applicable voluntary standards or more stringent than the voluntary standards if the Commission concludes that more stringent requirements would further reduce the risk of injury associated with the product. The Commission is issuing safety standards for full-size and non-full-size cribs that are substantially the same as voluntary standards developed by ASTM International (formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials). The standard for full-size cribs is substantially the same as a voluntary standard developed by ASTM, ASTM F 1169-10, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs, but with two modifications that strengthen the standard. The standard for non-full-size cribs is substantially the same as ASTM F 406-10a, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards, but with four modifications that strengthen the standard.
2. Section 104(c) of the CPSIA and the Proposed Rule
The crib standards are different from standards for the other durable infant or toddler products that section 104 of the CPSIA directs the Commission to issue. Section 104(c)(1) of the CPSIA makes it a prohibited act under section 19(a)(1) of the Consumer Product Safety Act ("CPSA") for any person to whom section 104(c) of the CPSIA applies to "manufacture, sell, contract to sell or resell, lease, sublet, offer, provide for use, or otherwise place in the stream of commerce a crib that is not in compliance with a standard promulgated under subsection (b) [of the CPSIA]." Section 104(c)(3) of the CPSIA defines "crib" as including new and used cribs, full-size and non-full-size cribs, portable cribs, and crib pens.
Section 104(c)(2) of the CPSIA states that the section applies to any person that:
(A) manufactures, distributes in commerce, or contracts to sell cribs;
(B) based on the person's occupation, holds itself out as having knowledge or skill peculiar to cribs, including child care facilities and family child care homes;
(C) is in the business of contracting to sell or resell, lease, sublet, or otherwise place cribs in the stream of commerce; or
(D) owns or operates a place of public accommodation affecting commerce (as defined in section 4 of the Federal Fire Prevention and Control Act of 1974 (15 U.S.C. 2203) applied without regard to the phrase "not owned by the Federal Government").
Section 104(c)(2) of the CPSIA.
Thus, the crib standards apply to owners and operators of child care facilities, family child care homes, and places of public accommodation such as hotels and motels, as well as to manufacturers, distributors, and retailers of cribs. Other durable infant or toddler product standards issued under section 104 of the CPSIA apply to products manufactured or imported on or after the effective date of the standard. However, under section 104(c) of the CPSIA, after the applicable date of compliance, it will be unlawful for any of the entities identified in section 104(c)(2) of the CPSIA to sell, lease, or otherwise distribute or provide a crib for use that does not meet the new CPSC crib standards, regardless of the date on which the crib was manufactured.
In the Federal Register of July 23, 2010 (75 FR 43308), the Commission published a proposed rule that would establish standards for full-size and non-full-size cribs. The proposed rule would incorporate by reference the following ASTM standards with some modifications: ASTM F 1169-10, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Full-Size Baby Cribs, and ASTM F 406-10, Standard Consumer Safety Specification for Non-Full-Size Baby Cribs/Play Yards.
3. Previous Commission Crib Standards (16 CFR Parts 1508 and 1509)
The Commission first issued mandatory regulations for full-size cribs in 1973 (amended in 1982), which were codified at 16 CFR part 1508 under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act ("FHSA"). In 1976, the Commission issued similar regulations for non-full-size cribs (also amended in 1982), which were codified at 16 CFR part 1509. The requirements of 16 CFR parts 1508 and 1509 have been included in ASTM F 1169-10 and F 406-10a, respectively. However, the recordkeeping requirements in the ASTM standards are expanded from the 3-year retention period that was required in 16 CFR parts 1508 and 1509 to a 6-year retention period, which is consistent with the consumer registration provision in section 104(d) of the CPSIA.
Elsewhere in this issue of the Federal Register , we are revoking the CPSC regulations for full-size and non-full-size cribs at 16 CFR parts 1508 and 1509. The new crib standards in this final rule, which incorporate the applicable ASTM standards, include the requirements of 16 CFR parts 1508 and 1509. Revoking 16 CFR parts 1508 and 1509 will allow all the crib-related requirements to be together and will avoid confusion about which requirements apply to cribs.
4. Previous Commission Activities Concerning Cribs
As detailed in the preamble to the proposed rule (75 FR at 43309), we have taken numerous regulatory and nonregulatory actions concerning crib hazards. In 1996, the Commission published an advance notice of proposed rulemaking ("ANPR") under the FHSA to address the hazard of crib slat disengagement, 61 FR 65996 (Dec. 16, 1996). When the Commission proposed the new crib standards under section 104 of the CPSIA, it published a notice terminating the rulemaking it had begun with the 1996 ANPR because the slat disengagement hazard is addressed by the new standards that the Commission is issuing. 75 FR 43107 (July 23, 2010).
The Commission's Office of Compliance has been involved with numerous investigations and recalls of cribs. Since 2007, the CPSC has issued 46 recalls of more than 11 million cribs. All but seven of these recalls were for product defects that created a substantial product hazard, and not for violations of the federal crib regulations.
Other previous actions include: (1) An ANPR that the Commission published in the Federal Register on November 25, 2008 (73 FR 71570) in preparation for this rulemaking, which discussed options to address the hazards that CPSC staff had identified in the reported crib incidents and recalls; and (2) a public roundtable meeting concerning crib safety that CPSC staff held on April 22, 2009. Information about the crib roundtable and the presentations made by CPSC staff and others are on the Commission's Web site at http://www.cpsc.gov/info/cribs/infantsleep.html.
B. The Products and Their Market
1. Definitions Under the CPSIA and the Crib Standards
--This is a summary of a Federal Register article originally published on the page number listed below--
CFR Part: "16 CFR Parts 1219, 1220, and 1500"
Citation: "75 FR 81766"
Federal Register Page Number: "81766"
"Rules and Regulations"
PRODUCT SAFETY (92%); CONSUMER LAW (91%); STANDARDS & MEASUREMENTS (90%); AGENCY RULEMAKING (90%); BABY PRODUCTS (89%); CHILD CARE (89%); INFANTS & TODDLERS (89%); REGULATORY COMPLIANCE (89%); APPROVALS (77%); RENTAL PROPERTY (72%)
MARYLAND, USA (78%) UNITED STATES (92%)